Toad-ally Cool

Toad-ally Cool

Photo courtesy Wikimedia Commons

Amphibians are bellwethers for us–they let us know what conditions are like in our wetlands. Worldwide, they don’t seem to be faring well. According to Amphibiaweb, in the last 20 years or so, 168 amphibian species have gone extinct–you know, disappeared forever. Almost 1/3 of amphibians are threatened with disappearing the world over. Fatal fungi and habitat destruction seem to be the gravest threats.

With the possible exception of the Egyptians who encountered the Hebrew prophet, Moses, most people like amphibians. 07EXODUS3-master675-v2

Depending upon where you live you might have frogs and/or toads, salamanders, or even caecilians as neighbors.

The one thing that ties all amphibians together (OK, perhaps there is more than one thing) is their double life: exisiting on land and water.

Some of them, like caecilians, which includes sirens, spend their entire lives in water. Others, like toads and some salamanders, use aquatic habitat primarily for breeding. Frogs, probably the most recognized amphibian, can be found on land and in the water throughout their adult life-span.

I’m going to focus on toads for this post because…they are found in my neighborhood–my backyard even.

Michigan has two species of toad: the Eastern American toad (‘Merica!), Bufo americanus, and the Fowler’s toad, Bufo woodhousiifowleri. The latter is found along the western third of the lower peninsula, whereas the Eastern American is distributed everywhere, including the U.P. (Upper Peninsula). It’s also found in eastern Canada, and of course, the eastern U.S.

Fowler’s toad (courtesy of Wikimedia Commons)

Eastern American toad distribution

Fowler’s toad distribution

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Toads, if you didn’t know, have dry skin and can be gray, brown, reddish-brown, tan, or even olive. Their backs have dark spots, and at times dark spotting is on the throat and belly, but usually that area is whitish or yellowish. Adults are generally anywhere from two to four inches in length–though I saw a giant toad in Canada once (perhaps my tiny boy eyes made the beast appear larger?).

Probably the toad’s signature identifier is the appearance of warts along its back and head. Their short legs, though the hind ones are longer than the front, give them a squat look. Combine squat and warty and you get Sqwarty. That sums up a toad–Sqwarty. Ranging in length from two to over four inches, toads are smaller than many of their frog cousins. That makes them easy to step on, unfortunately.

What’s for Dinner?

Toads won’t eat your crops. They are insectivores and expand their palate to include spiders and earthworms. Supposedly, they can consume 26 insects a day for a total of 3,200 from May to August. Not quite as prolific insect devourers as bats, they still provide ecosystem services pro bono.

Where to Look

     If you look in open woodlands and the edges as well, you might find a toad–or multiple ones. If you look in meadows, marshes, lake shores, and even your backyard, you might find a toad.

During hot, dry periods and during winter they are buried in moist soil or plant debris. How did they get there? Toads can dig holes with their hind feet.

Toad Love?

The season of love for toads is in April or May (it began in my neighborhood on April 9th of this year) when they begin moving to wetlands.

That irresistible sound that boy toads make is a high, sharp trill that can last up to 30 seconds, which comes from an inflated throat sac.

Toad sex is called, sexily enough, amplexus. The male clasps the female from behind her front legs and then fertilizes anywhere from 2,000 to 20,000 eggs which emerge from her body in long, gelatinous strings that attach to submerged rocks, plants, twigs, hot tubs, whatever.

Depending on the water temperature, tadpoles will hatch 3-14 days later. The pre-toads eat algae, plant material, and the dead, but not mosquito larvae unfortunately. In about 6-10 weeks they transform into toadlets and take about 2-3 years to reach their massive 2-4+ inch adult size.

Pre-toads…

…to toadlet.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Please Don’t Eat the Toads

A toad’s coloring and texture help camouflage it in it’s surroundings. Failing that, they can secrete an icky substance from their back warts which can be toxic to small mammals if ingested. Plan C  is to inflate with air to prevent something swallowing the toad. And if you still insist on picking them up, they’ll probably urinate in your hand.

 

Did You Know…?

  • Toads are found on all continents except Antarctica
  • A group of toads (what’s the minimum number? I. Don’t. Know.) is called a knot
  • They have no teeth
  • According to my sources they are nocturnal, but I’ve found plenty of toads in the daytime. The mating call does tend to start around dusk, however.
  • The lucky ones can live for 20-40 years
  • While you can find them near water when it isn’t mating season, they’ll generally be found in drier areas.

Toads have made it into 20th Century pop culture:

A series of stories for early readers–something from my childhood.

I didn’t read this as a child, but I did read it to my son.

Everything gets appropriated by Disney!

  • Have you ever held a toad in your hand? Aside from the small puddle of urine, you’ll also notice the cool, clammy, thin skin. It’s like holding a small pouch of bones.

 

 

 

 

 

Do what you can to encourage toads to visit your backyard. Your children will thank you.

 

 

 

 

Advertisements

Chuck That! It Ain’t February.

I’ve been procrastinating on an article for this site for at least three months. I was going to write a brief review of a couple of ecologically-minded books; I even wrote two drafts–but, I ramble and you don’t care. Either produce content or shut up, you’re thinking. So, here ya go.

Woodchuck, groundhog, land beaver, and yes, whistlepig are all common names for the largest member of the squirrel family. This rodent, which not only has a national day set aside for it (unlike the faux holidays like Amphibian Awareness Day or Walleye Days) also has a movie named for it’s day. p14569_p_v8_ah

For the record, “The Gopher” in Caddyshack, looks more like a groundhog than a gopher. Feel free to debate me. I don’t think the filmmakers consulted an ecologist.

 

 

The groundhog or woodchuck, I refer to them by both names depending on the stage of the lunar cycle or whether it’s a leap year or not, is known as Marmota monax, which if Google Translate is to be believed, means “Woodchuck chuck.” Which if you know that old saying, “How much wood could a woodchuck chuck…” seems awfully serendipitous to me or else the taxonomer had an ironic sense of humor.

As mentioned they are related to squirrels, in the sciuridae family, and are really just a large ground squirrel. They are found all over the eastern US as far south as northern Alabama and extend up into Canada further west than the US, but can even be found in Alaska. Woodch5

The name “Woodchuck” is probably a bastardization of the Algonquian wuchak.

What’s This Thing Look Like?

Woodchucks are stocky with short legs and a bushy tail. Both sexes are similar, though males are slightly larger. Their fur is brown with some white giving a grizzled appearance–but albino and black individuals can be occasionally spotted.

The forefeet have long, curved claws (“the better to dig holes with, my dear.). The teeth include chisel-like incisors. The eyes, ears, and nose are positioned on the head as to allow them to peer out of the safety of their burrow just over the edge.

From head to tail, on average they span 20-27 inches and usually don’t weigh over 14 pounds; males tend to stay in the 5-10 pound range.

These be tracks of the beast.

These be tracks of the beast.

This Land Is My Land

Woodchucks construct burrows anywhere from 8-66 feet in length with multiple exits and chambers (including one dedicated to defecation). These burrows can be found on the edge of a forest, in fields, and hedgerows, and in people’s backyards. They prefer being near open land.

As should be obvious, they have adapted well to human activity, being found near cleared land, road projects, and agricultural enterprises.

They love your lawns and gardens, people!

Muskrat Groundhog Love

They breed in late February (after their holiday, of course) or March, first beginning when they approach two years of age. Usually solitary, reproduction is one of the few times they hang out together.

Two to five kits are born in April or May with only one litter per year. The kits remain with the mother for about two months. After which time they are told to get out and get a job.

Them’s Good Eatin’

Beans, corn, peas, carrots, cucumbers, and even flowers will be sampled from your garden by the whistlepig. Clover, grass, soybeans, and alfalfa in other areas. Like their cousins, the squirrels, they can climb trees to grab an apple, pear, or nuts. And while they are generally herbivores, sometimes in the spring, before much has greened up, they will chomp on protein in the form of snakes and insects.

As a rodent, the woodchuck’s incisors continually grow. Thus they need to gnaw on wood or nuts to simultaneously sharpen and file the teeth down.

"Mom told you to keep gnawing. Now look what happened."

“Mom told you to keep gnawing. Now look what happened.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Their diets are affected by seasonal availability, hence the need for hibernation.

Little Did They Know…

  • Elderly for a woodchuck is seven years of age. On average, in the wild they live three to six years.
  • They are active from spring to fall and begin hibernation in October where their body temperature drops from 99 degrees F to 40 and their heartbeat slows from 80 bpm to only 5.
  • Woodchucks can swim!
  • They can be found sunning themselves.
  • Most states list them as a game animal. I’ve eaten smoked woodchuck; it wasn’t bad.
  • Have you ever observed one walking? They waddle.
  • My first experience with hard cider was with Woodchuck. I used to love that stuff, now my palate has grown. It’s a bit like moving from Stroh’s or Miller to a microbrew. download (3)

 

 

 

 

You may find the woodchuck a pest as farmers, my father-in-law, and my neighbor do, but remember they are part of your neighborhood. If you can deter them from your plants, let them be a fuzzy neighbor to you.

Photo by Jaliya G. Rasaputra

Photo by Jaliya G. Rasaputra

 

 

Lastly, as you contemplate just how much wood a woodchuck could chuck if it had the ability to do so, click this link for a better verbal homage to this posting’s rodent.

 

 

A tidbit

I know I’ve been away from this blog for too long and I’m slowly working on some new content…but in the mean time I’ll post some things by others to keep the embers glowing.

Here’s some good news from the Good News Network about the kings of the lepidoptera.

 

Courtesy Creative Commons and the Fish and Wildlife Service

Courtesy Creative Commons and the Fish and Wildlife Service

http://www.goodnewsnetwork.org/monarch-butterfly-population-more-than-triples-over-last-year/

Push and Pull

Push and Pull

(This post was actually finished two weeks ago, but due to a failing home computer I didn’t save it like I should and I had to reconstruct the whole thing.  Apologies for missing about a month-and-a-half.)

The study of geography talks about the reasons that people immigrate and emigrate (which by the way means to come into another country or leave one’s home country, respectively), the push and pull factors.  These include:

  • famine
  • war (unfortunately all too present right now)
  • debt
  • opportunity
  • running from the past

Animals have a more limited scope when they migrate.  And the strict definition for migrate includes the idea of a return.  Animals only permanently move out if habitat is destroyed or they are extirpated.

What you probably picture when you think of "migration."  (Courtesy Wikimedia Commons)

What you probably picture when you think of “migration.” (Courtesy Wikimedia Commons)

Here in Michigan we think of migration in primarily terms of north and south–Canada geese, mallard ducks, songbirds, sandhill cranes, and monarchs all head for sunnier climes beginning in September.  But migration can happen in an east to west (or vice versa) cycle, up and down mountains, and even vertical movement through the water column.

Photo courtesy Nature Next Door

Photo courtesy Nature Next Door

All kinds of animals migrate (heck, even mold migrates!) from zooplankton to blue whales.

 

Migration for them is an “adaptive response to seasonal or geographic variation of resources.”  Or sometimes to breed.  The daylight length, temperature, or food sources have changed and so animals move on.

Those triggers–light, hormones, water currents–all give the signal to “pack up and head out.”  Cooler temperatures signal birds to migrate, for instance.

So, how do they do it?  Migrate, I mean.  Animals use topography, polarized light patterns bouncing off of airborne particles (which happens even on cloudy days), the stars, and olfactory and magnetic cues.  Rivers and coastlines are particularly helpful.  The most southern point in Canada (well, nearby Pelee Island is officially the southernmost point) is a sandy peninsula known as Point Pelee.  This helps guide birds across Lake Erie.  Why wouldn’t it?  It’s a giant directional signal pointing south.

How can you not know what direction to go?

How can you not know what direction to go? Photo courtesy Brian Kirchner

 

 

 

Some animals forage along the way, while others have gorged themselves and built up fat stores (hyperphagia) much like those who stay and hibernate.

Southeast Michigan sees the beginning of migration in August and continues even to this present point as I witnessed a flock of Canada geese pass over me this morning.  The little brown bats we observe wheeling the evening summer sky move from their tree roosts to caves for the winter.  The trout and salmon are migrating for breeding purposes (though their numbers are limited in SE Michigan).  Hummingbirds, sandhill cranes, and all kinds of warblers have exited the confines of the state. Out west, the elk migrate, and in northern Michigan there is a herd or four, but I don’t know that they migrate.

Before finishing this article let me include some random migration facts:

  • Humpback whales complete the longest mammal migration of up to 8,500 km each way.
  • Monarch butterflies, of course, have the longest insect migration from Canada and the northern US to California and Mexico in the fall–up to 4,750 km.

    Photo courtesy Tamya Hall

    Photo courtesy Tamya Hall

  • Rattlesnakes(!) in Alberta, Canada migrate to find dens for hibernation just slightly south of their summer grounds

As annoying as the Canada goose has become, it’s still thrilling to hear the feathery thump when they fly in their characteristic V-shaped flocks closer to the earth on the way to wherever they stay.  Occasionally, the mallards in smaller groups beat their whistling wings to find food further south.  The great blue herons will stick around, surprisingly, as long as open water exists.

So what migrates from your neighborhood?  Or perhaps you live in a winter destination?  What “new” species are just showing up?  Get outside and look around.

 

 

Eating in Your Backyard

Eating in Your Backyard

[Note: This post was started in late July/early August, but as usual, life got in the way.  Consider this a tip of the hat to the end of summer.]

High summer is here.  Most likely there are fewer flashes from fireflies and the visual dearth is replaced by a nearly-incessant daytime buzz-sawing of calling cicadas.  Not to mention the katydids making their crunchy nocturnal songs.

 

Regardless of the insect A/V presentations, I trust you have been outside to observe and enjoy.

 

You’ve probably even experienced a repast or two in your yard.

This is fancier than my backyard meals. (Courtesy Creative Commons)

This is fancier than my backyard meals. (Courtesy Creative Commons)

 

Has any of the food come from your garden?  Even if you don’t raise fruits and vegetables, you’re likely to find fruits and edible plants that you didn’t sow blossoming in your yard or neighborhood.

 

This month’s topic should be obvious at this point: wild (and semi-wild) edibles!

 

Let me start with the easy ones—easy because you are more than likely familiar with them presently.

 

Berries:

Tasty, but not wild.

Tasty, but not wild.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Raspberries – both red and black-capped varieties can be found in backyards, on farms, and in the woods.

(Courtesy wikimedia.org)

 

 

 

(Courtesy wikimedia.org)

  • Blueberries – the wild strain are smaller (and tastier to me). I’ve not found them in yards, but along trails in more northerly latitudes.

    Courtesy Mr. Wooton--CC

    Courtesy Mr. Wooton–CC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Blackberries – thornier than raspberries (and too seedy for my tastes) but many people enjoy jam, pies, and alcohol made from these giants.

(Courtesy Wikimedia Commons)

(Courtesy Wikimedia Commons)

  • Serviceberries – these grow on trees and some municipalities plant them

    5393665

    (Courtesy Bugwoodcloud.org)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Forbs, i.e. herbaceous (a plant that has leaves and stems that die and return to the soil at the end of the growing season) flowering plants:

 

  • Dandelions – I know you have these, in not in your yard, then a neighbor’s or somewhere down the street. There isn’t even a reason to post a photo as they are unmistakable in the U.S. (and Canada).  I’ve seen the greens for sale, labeled as organic at $6 a pound!  They are bitter, but do well in soups and in a mixed salad.  But why would anyone buy them?

Chicory_(Cichorium_intybus)

  • Chicory – the flower and bud are edible, but bitter. The root can (and has) be used to flavor coffee.  It’s probably growing near the road outside your home.

 

  • Lamb’s quarter – found in your yard and around construction sites (or any disturbed soil). The leaves are less bitter than dandelions, but shouldn’t be eaten by themselves.  Toss into something.

    (Courtesy Forestryimages.com)

    (Courtesy Forestryimages.com)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Broadleaf plantain courtesty wikimedia.org)

(Broadleaf plantain courtesy wikimedia.org)

 

 

 

  • Plantain – not related to the relative of the banana. Again, edible leaves, easy to find, works well in a mix of other foods.

 

 

 

My first morels

My first morels

  • Mushroom – everyone knows mushrooms are edible. Just not which ones.  Please don’t ever eat any, unless you are sure they can be consumed.  Bad mushrooms go from bad tasting all the way to death.  Double check before putting them in your omelet.

 

  • Cattails – not normally found in neighborhoods unless you have some wetland present. The root is—not bitter—very akin to the taste of a cucumber.

After the flavor is gone.

(After the flavor is gone.)

 

This simply scratches the green surface of the many, many edible wild plants growing among us.

 

Try this book if you have any interest.  That’s certainly not the only one if you “hunger” for more.

 

Save a bit of money, increase your knowledge of the plants/food sources around you, and impress (or cause disgust) when you snack on some random plant.